Buckwheat is a cool season broadleaf annual with warm season growth characteristics.  It enhances soil P availability.  It suppresses weeds and attracts beneficial insects and pollinators with its abundant blossoms.  It establishes itself, blooms and reaches maturity in just 70 to 90 days, and its residue breaks down quickly.  It thrives in cool, moist conditions but is not frost tolerant.  It also is not particularly drought tolerant, and readily wilts under hot, dry conditions.

Flowering buckwheat

Phacelia flowers

Phacelia plants


Phacelia is an annual with upright plant growth.  It is grown as a nitrogen catch crop and attracts beneficial insects and will form arbuscular mycorrhizal associations.  It is native to California, but developed in Germany.  It grows 12-36” tall, flowers from March-May and matures in April-June.


Flax is an annual with an upright plant structure.  It has hair salinity tolerance with medium water use.  The flowers attract pollinators and it benefits from arbuscular mycorrhizal associations.

Mature flax


Carrot is a cool season broadleaf crop.  A couple major types are biennial, which are cultivated, and annual, which are wild.  It is a root crop with crude protein around 10% and it forms arbuscular mycorrhizal associations.  Plants may bolt and flower starting in second year of growth, and they may attract honeybees.

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